“A method of legislative bribery not yet reached by the criminal statutes is that of vote-trading; a form of intimidation not yet defined in the codes is that of threatening a legislator with defeat of his important measures to force him to vote against his convictions.
“Eventually both these corrupt practices will be properly classified, both in public opinion and the law,.
“For a member to agree to vote for a measure, which he knows to be bad, or against a measure, which he knows to be good, to secure support for his own bill is quite as mischievous as though he had taken cash for it.
“For a legislator or lobbyist to threaten a member with defeat of some measure in the passage of which the member or his constituents may be interested, classifies very well with threat to do injury to property or to person.
“One of the weaknesses of the current legislative process is that it lends itself to such bribery and to such intimidation.”
–Franklin Hichborn, the Story of the Session of the California Legislature of 1913